Heidi Kratsch

Photo of Heidi Kratsch, Extension

Heidi Kratsch

Associate Professor, State Specialist

Summary

I have nearly 20 years of experience working on issues related to woody plant stress. I am particularly interested in the impact of water stress on trees, and have spent most of my career instructing students, Green Industry professionals, Master Gardeners and the public on landscape water conservation strategies. I also have an interest in marketing social change, and I have used a variety of strategies to help citizens move towards positive behavior related to urban landscape sustainability.

Education

B.S. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1979 (Agriculture)
M.S. University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, 2000 (Biology)
Ph.D. Iowa State University, 2004 (Horticulture / Plant Physiology)

Programs

professionals in a commercial landscape horticulture class

Commercial Landscape Horticulture

Classes offer training for green industry workers, including some bilingual classes, on how to landscape in the Nevada desert

people learning to identify a tree

Green Industry Training

A workforce development program to train green industry professionals, who receive continuing education units for pesticide applicator, ISA-certified arborist and Qualified Water Efficient Landscaper

hands holding freshly picked carrots

Grow Your Own, Nevada!

Learn the secrets of high desert gardening

ladybug larva eating aphids on a pepper plant

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management program is a long-term management strategy that uses a combination of tactics to reduce pests to tolerable levels with potentially lower costs for the pest manager and minimal effect on the environment.

Silver Ironweed, Vernonia lindheimeri v. leucophylla

Master Gardener Energy Way Demonstration Garden

The Master Gardeners of Washoe County maintain a small raised-bed demonstration garden featuring ornamental plants. It is located on the east side of the Extension, Washoe County Office.

Master gardeners planting seedlings

Master Gardener Native Plants Demonstration Garden

Members of the Master Gardeners of Washoe County's Native Plants Committee maintain a small demonstration garden on the west side of Extension, Washoe County Office.

Master Gardeners at tabling event

Master Gardeners of Nevada

Program trains local gardeners to provide research-based horticulture information to Nevadans

master gardeners in garden

Master Gardeners of Washoe County

Master Gardeners provide free, research-based horticulture information to Nevadans.

pesticide traing cb

Pesticide Safety Education Program

Extension’s Pesticide Safety Education Program provides web-based training for pesticide applicators seeking to apply restricted and general use pesticides safely, properly and according to the law. Pesticide licensure and certification is administered by the Nevada Department of Agriculture.

program placeholder image 95

Pioneer Center Landscape

Extension's Master Gardeners of Washoe County maintain the landscaping around the Pioneer Center located in downtown Reno. Explore the grounds to see what grows well right here in Reno.

qwel cb

Qualified Water Efficient Landscaper (QWEL)

Training will provide participants with local water, soil and plant information, basic and advanced irrigation principles and hands-on water audit skills they can use in the field

cheatgrass and flixweed

Weed Prevention & Management

Integrated weed management is based on economically viable and environmentally friendly weed management tactics that combine use of herbicides with other control tactics, such as mowing, burning, tillage, grazing and re-vegetation. By taking steps to prevent weed invasion, land owners/managers and other stakeholders can avoid the economic and environmental impacts of noxious and invasive weeds.

Weed Warriors Invasive Weed Training cb

Weed Warriors Invasive Weed Training

The Weed Warriors program tackles the growing problem of weeds on public and private land.

Courses

NRES 400 - Native Plant of the Great Basin

Honors and Awards

  • Industry Honors/Awards 2015 – Outstanding Service Award,
  • Nevada Landscape Association 2012 – Education/Research Award,
  • Nevada Landscape Association 2006 – Utah Nursery and Landscape Association Board of Directors Leadership Award

Accomplishments

  • Kratsch, H. 2015-2016. Bioplastic Container Cropping Systems-Supplemental Funds. Subaward through Iowa State University on USDA-NIFA Specialty Crops Research Initiative (Supplemental). $17,948.
  • Kratsch, H. 2014-2016. Enhancing Professionalism and Continuing Education Opportunities for Nevada’s Green Industry. Nevada Division of Forestry. $4,954.
  • Kratsch, H. 2013-2014. Demonstration and Education about Penstemons for Great Basin Landscapes. American Penstemon Society. $931.
  • Davison, J. and H. Kratsch. 2014-2016. Nevada Extension Integrated Pest Management Coordination and Support Program, USDA-NIFA. $384,900
  • Kratsch, H. 2012-2013. Demonstration, Propagation and Outreach Education Related to Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Program (GBNPSIP) Plant Materials. U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (supplemental). $4,950.
  • Davison, J., S. Donaldson, and H. Kratsch. 2011-2013. Nevada Extension Integrated Pest Management Coordination and Support Program, USDA-NIFA. $352,770.
  • Kratsch, H. 2011-2016. Bioplastic Container Cropping Systems: Green Technology for the Green Industry. Subaward through Iowa State University on USDA-NIFA Specialty Crops Research Initiative. $139,672.
  • Kratsch, H. and K. Seymour. 2011-2012. Community Gardens Build Healthy Kids. 2011. Nevada Department of Health and Human Services. $7,927

Service

  • 2015 – President, Nevada Landscape Association
  • 2015 – Present – Associate Editor, Native Plants Journal
  • 2013 – Present – National eXtension Water Conservation for Lawn and Landscape Community of Practice
  • 2010 – Present – National eXtension Master Gardener Coordinators’ Committee
  • 2006 – Present – Formal reviewer (by appointment), Journal of Extension

News & Journal Articles, Fact Sheets, Reports...

Blog Posts
Tips for Keeping Your Landscape Plants Alive During a Drought
A brief list of tips on how to protect your landscape during drought.
Kratsch, H. 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Blog
Bulletins
Native bee on desert marigold
Using native plants to attract pollinators and other beneficial insects - workshop and plant giveaway
These workshops in Reno and Elko will cover the fascinating ecology of our native pollinators and how to use native plants to provide critical habitat for them and pest control services for you. In addition, there will be a plant giveaway at the end of the workshop!
Burls, K.J. and H. Kratsch 2021, University of Nevada, Reno Event Calendar
Fact Sheets
catepillar
A Northern Nevada Homeowner's Guide to Identifying and Managing Cabbage Caterpillars
This fact sheet describes the identifying features, life cycle, plant damage, and control methods for managing common caterpillar pests on various crops in the cabbage family.
K. Burls, W. Hanson Mazet, H. Kratsch 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, FS-21-109
stink bug
A Northern Nevada Homeowner's Guide to Identifying and Managing Shield Bugs
This fact sheet describes the identifying features, life cycle, plant damage, and control methods for managing Shield Bugs in Nevada.
K. Burls, W. Hanson Mazet, H. Kratsch 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, FS-21-110
squash bug
A Northern Nevada Homeowner's Guide to Identifying and Managing Squash Bugs
This fact sheet describes the identifying features, life cycle, plant damage, and control methods for managing Squash Bugs in Nevada.
K. Burls, W. Hanson Mazet, H.i Kratsch 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, FS-21-111
A Northern Nevada Homeowner's Guide to Identifying and Managing Earwigs
This fact sheet describes the identifying features, life cycle, plant damage, and control methods for managing earwigs in Nevada.
K. Burls, W.Hanson Mazet, H. Kratsch 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, FS-21-108
Macrosiphum rosae, the rose aphid.
Know Nevada Insects: Aphids
This publication explains the biology and general management of aphids, one of the most common garden pests in Nevada. There are many alternatives to chemicals when treating aphids, including using native predators and protecting plants with lightweight physical covers.
Burls, K. and H. Kratsch 2020, University of Nevada, Reno, FS 20-30
Cómo los Pesticidas entran en tu Cuerpo / How Pesticides Enter Your Body
Esta publicación describe las diferentes formas en que los pesticidas pueden ingresar al cuerpo y cuales son los signos y síntomas de intoxicación por causa del uso de pesticidas. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-05
Emergency First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning / Primeros Auxilios en caso de una Emergencia de Intoxicación de Pesticidas
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes emergency first aid for pesticide poisonings, emergency eye flush procedures and the worker protection standard requirements for decontamination supplies. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-07
man hydrating with water
Enfermedades relacionadas con Calor: Síntomas, Primeros Auxilios y Prevención / Heat-Related Illnesses: Symptoms, First Aid and Prevention
Esta publicación describe las 4 enfermedades principales relacionadas con el calor: insolación, agotamiento por causa del calor, calambres por el calor y sarpullido por el calor. Esta es una de una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno FS-02-06
Equipo de Protección Personal / Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Esta publicación describe el Equipo de Protección Personal (Personal Protective Equipment) o PPE, cuál es el requisito mínimo de un PPE para la mayoría de los pesticidas, consejos para el uso del PPE y cómo cuidarlo. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-04
How Pesticides Enter Your Body / Cómo los Pesticidas entran en tu Cuerpo
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes the different ways pesticides can enter the body and the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisoning. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-05
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) / Equipo de Protección Personal
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes Personal Protective Equipment or PPE, what the minimum PPE requirement is for most pesticides, tips for using PPE and how to care for PPE. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-04
Primeros Auxilios en caso de una Emergencia de Intoxicación de Pesticidas / Emergency First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning
Esta publicación describe los primeros auxilios en caso de emergencia de las intoxicaciones por causa de pesticidas y procedimientos de enjuague de ojos en caso de emergencia. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Fisher, J., Kratsch, H., and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-02-07
Almacenamiento Seguro de Pesticidas / Storing Pesticides Safely
Esta publicación describe la forma correcta de almacenar los pesticidas de manera segura y cómo eliminar los pesticidas no deseados. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-03
Cleaning Pesticide-Contaminated Clothing / Lavado de Ropa Contaminada por Pesticidas
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes the proper way to clean pesticide-contaminated clothing while minimizing pesticide contamination in the home. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-08
Desecho de Manera segura del los Pesticidas y contendores de Pesticidas / Disposing of Pesticides and Pesticide Containers Safely
Esta publicación describe la forma correcta de eliminar los pesticidas y los envases que contienen pesticidas en Nevada. Este es uno de una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-09
Disposing of Pesticides and Pesticide Containers Safely/ Desecho de Manera segura del los Pesticidas y contendores de Pesticidas
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes the proper way to dispose of pesticides and pesticide containers in Nevada. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-09
Lavado de Ropa Contaminada por Pesticidas / Cleaning Pesticide-Contaminated Clothing
Esta publicación describe la manera correcta de cómo se debe limpiar la ropa contaminada con pesticidas, y al mismo tiempo cómo reducir la contaminación de pesticidas en el hogar. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheets FS-20-08
Managing and Reporting Pesticide Spills / Manejo y Reporte de Derrames de Pesticidas
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes dealing with pesticide spills, what materials should be in a spill kit, how to dispose of spill materials and how to report a pesticide spill. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Fact Sheet FS-20-01
Manejo y Reporte de Derrames de Pesticidas / Managing and Reporting Pesticide Spills
Esta publicación describe cómo se debe tratar los derrames de pesticidas, qué materiales deben estar en un kit en caso de derrames, cómo desechar los materiales de derrame y cómo reportar un derrame de pesticidas. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-01
Protecting Pollinators/ Protegiendo a los Polinizadores
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes how to protect pollinators during a pesticide application. It also describes native bees and provides additional resources for information. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-10
Protegiendo a los Polinizadores / Protecting Pollinators
Esta publicación describe cómo proteger a los polinizadores durante la aplicación de pesticidas. También describe a las abejas nativas y proporciona recursos adicionales para obtener mayor información. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-10
Storing Pesticides Safely/ Almacenamiento Seguro de Pesticidas
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes the proper way to store pesticides safely and how to dispose of unwanted pesticides. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-03
Transporte de Pesticidas de forma Segura / Transporting Pesticides Safely
Esta publicación describe cómo se debe transportar los pesticidas de manera segura, y cómo y cuándo reportar los derrames de pesticidas. Esta es una en una serie de 10 hojas que contienen datos sobre el Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, University of Nevada, Reno Extension Fact Sheet FS-20-02
Transporting Pesticides Safely / Transporte de Pesticidas de forma Segura
This bilingual (Spanish and English) publication describes how to transport pesticides safely and how and when to report pesticide spills. This is one of a series of 10 Pesticide Use and Safety/ Uso y Seguridad de Pesticidas fact sheets.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Fisher, J. and Schaerer, M.F. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno Fact Sheets FS-20-02
Navigating Online Program Delivery With Zoom Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic
This publication will explore how four faculty moved their programming online to meet both programmatic and clientele needs.
L. Chichester, S. Emm, H. Kratsch, C. Restaino 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, FS-20-29
Planting Trees in Northern Nevada Landscapes
Adding a tree to your landscape is an investment in your property. A tree will add natural beauty to the landscape and provide needed shade for your home and family. Properly planting a tree will give it a good start toward a long life.
Kratsch, H., Hanson Mazet, W. 2015, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, Fact Sheet FS-15-02
Hydroponics: A Brief Guide to Growing Food Without Soil
Hydroponics comes from the Greek word “hydro,” meaning water, and “ponos,” meaning labor. In other words, hydroponics is gardening without soil. Growing food in a desert can be difficult because of extreme temperatures, low natural precipitation and limited arable soil.
Treftz, C., Kratsch, H., and Omaye, S. 2015, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, Fact Sheet FS-15-08
Getting Started with Backyard Fruit Trees in Northern Nevada
Practical advice for getting started with backyard fruit trees, including selection tips, pruning tips, chill requirements and lists of fruit trees varieties that grow well in northern Nevada, including apple, pear, cherry, plum, peach and apricot varieties.
Kratsch, H. and Hanson Mazet, W. 2014, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Fact Sheet 14-14
Using Audience Response Systems to Assess Program Audiences, Needs and Impacts
Audience response systems (ARS) are wireless personal response systems that allow participants at meetings and trainings to instantly and anonymously provide feedback, answer questions and vote in response to questions posed. The data is immediately available to both teacher and participants.
Donaldson, S., Kratsch, H., and Skelly, J. 2012, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, FS-12-21
Are You Sure You Have a Pest Problem? Not all plant problems are caused by pests!
Sometimes our gardening practices are harmful to plants. For example, placing too thick a layer of mulch, accidently applying pesticides where we didn’t want them or forgetting to give our plants water in the winter when the weather is too dry can all lead to plant damage that is not caused by pests or diseases.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Donaldson S., and Skelly, J. 2012, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, FS-12-23
Some Good Native Plants for Great Basin Landscapes
This fact sheet contains information on common garden trials that are used to identify, evaluate, and select native plant species for verities of landscapes.
Kratsch H. 2011, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, FS-11-13
bag of fertilizer
Fertilizing Your Vegetable Garden
This publication offers practical information on plant nutrients, different types of plant fertilizers, and how to apply fertilizers in the vegetable garden.
Kratsch, H. 2010, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Fact Sheet 10-68
Irrigating (Watering) Your Vegetable Garden
Irrigation is an essential practice for people growing vegetables in dry climates. This fact sheet explains uses of different types of irrigation and how to determine when it is necessary.
Kratsch, H. 2010, Extension University of Nevada, Reno, FS-10-16
Getting Started with a Vegetable Garden
Practical information on getting started with a vegetable garden, including easy to grow vegetables for beginners and planting dates for Nevada.
Kratsch, H., Allen, L., Hanson Mazet, W. 2010, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Fact Sheet 10-15
Field Guides
Photo of mayweed chamomile plant with white flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Mayweed chamomile
Mayweed chamomile is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2021, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Syrian beancaper plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Syrian beancaper
Syrian beancaper is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Becker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
African mustard plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – African mustard
African mustard is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., H. Kratsch, Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
African rue flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – African rue
African rue is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Austrian fieldcress plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Austrian fieldcress
Austrian fieldcress is a non-native plant that disrupts native vegetation because they have no natural controls and are able to adapt to varied conditions.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Barbed goatgrass
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Barbed goatgrass
Barbed goatgrass is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Black henbane
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Black henbane
Black henbane is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Camelthorn flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Camelthorn
Camelthorn is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of canada thistle plant.
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Canada thistle
Canada thistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of common crupina stem
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Common crupina
Common crupina is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Common St. Johnswort plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Common St. Johnswort
Common St. Johnswort is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of crimson fountaingrass plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Crimson fountaingrass
Crimson fountaingrass is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of curlyleaf pondweed plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Curlyleaf pondweed
Curlyleaf pondweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of dalmatian toadflax plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Dalmatian toadflax
Dalmation toadflax is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of diffuse knapweed with white and pink flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Diffuse knapweed
Diffuse knapweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of a field of dyer's woad next to a river.
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Dyer's woad
Dyer's woad is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of eurasian watermilfoil plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Eurasian watermilfoil
Eurasian watermilfoil is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of pink flowering rush flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Flowering rush
Flowering rush is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of giant reed plant with hairy ends
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Giant reed
Giant reed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of giant salvinia plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Giant salvinia
Giant salvinia is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
goatsrue by river
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Goatsrue
Goatsrue is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of hoary cress plant with green leaves
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Hoary cress
Hoary cress is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of horsenettle plant with small round yellow fruit
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Horsenettle
Horsenettle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of houndstongue plant with small purple flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Houndstongue
Houndstongue is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of iberian starthistle plant with pink flower on top
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Iberian starthistle
Iberian starthistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of johnsongrass adult plant with purple feathery flowers on top
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Johnsongrass
Johnsongrass is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of many green jointed goatgrass plants that look like a field
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Jointed goatgrass
Jointed goatgrass is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of leafy spurge plant with flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Leafy spurge
Leafy spurge is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of malta starthistle plant with yellow and pink and red flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Malta starthistle
Malta starthistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Mediterranean desert knapweed flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Mediterranean desert knapweed
Mediterranean desert knapweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of mediterranean sage plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Mediterranean sage
Mediterranean sage is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of a field of medusahead plants
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Medusahead
Medusahead is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of musk thistle plant with pink flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Musk thistle
Musk thistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of perennial pepperweed with white flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Perennial pepperweed
Perennial pepperweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
photo of perennial sowthistle patch
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Perennial sowthistle
Perennial sowthistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of poison-hemlock with white flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Poison-hemlock
Poison-hemlock is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of puncture vine plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Puncturevine
Puncturevine is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of purple loosestrife
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Purple loosestrife
Purple loosestrife is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of purple starthistle
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Purple Starthistle
Purple starthistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of rush skeletonweed
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Rush skeletonweed
Rush skeletonweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Russian knapweed
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Russian knapweed
Russian knapweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of saltcedar
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Saltcedar
Saltcedar is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of scotch thistle plant with pint flower head
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Scotch thistle
Scotch thistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of silverleaf nightshade plant with yellow colored berries.
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Silverleaf nightshade
Silverleaf nightshade is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of spotted knapweed pink flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Spotted knapweed
Spotted knapweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of squarrose knapweed plant with small pink flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Squarrose knapweed
Squarrose knapweed is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Sulfur cinquefoil plant with yellow flower
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Sulfur cinquefoil
Sulfur cinquefoil is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Swainsonpea plant with small pink flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Swainsonpea
Swainsonpea is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Ventenata plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Ventenata
Ventenata is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Waterhemlock
Waterhemlock is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of yellow starthistle plant
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Yellow starthistle
Yellow starthistle is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Photo of Yellow toadflax plants with yellow flowers
Nevada Noxious Weed Field Guide – Yellow toadflax
Yellow toadflax is a noxious weed that has been identified by the state of Nevada to be harmful to agriculture, the general public, or the environment. Learn more about this weed.
Blecker, L., Creech, E., Dick, J., Gephart, S., Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., Moe, A., Schultz, B. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Field Guide
Lay or Popular Publications
Native Plants Help Conserve Water Andrews, A. and Kratsch, H. 2015, Reno Gazette-Journal
Special Publications
high tunnel greenhouse
Climate Modification Using High Tunnels in Western Nevada
Farmers in the Great Basin are investing in inexpensive low-tech greenhouses, known as high tunnels, but little is known about how high tunnels alter the climate conditions that crops experience inside of high tunnels.
Heckler, S., McAfee, S.A., Kratsch, H.A. 2020, Extension Special Publication
Climate Science Readiness and Training Needs of Nevada Extension Professionals
Special publication that evaluates the needs and institutional desires for incorporating climate change information into existing Extension programming. Includes assessment of attitudes, perceived knowledge levels, current efforts to address climate change and the need for training.
Kratsch, H., Cobourn, J., Chichester, L. and Ormerod, K. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, SP-20-08
scottish thistle
Nevada Nuisance Weeds Field Guide
The plants listed in this field guide are nuisance weeds, those that are troublesome, but have not been listed by the state as noxious weeds.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. 2018, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension SP-18-02
Green Industry Professional’s Guide to Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
A Green Industry Professional’s Guide to Integrated Pest Management is designed to help green industry personnel understand IPM and to aid in implementing a pest control plan.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. 2017, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension SP-17-14
lady bug
A Homeowner's Guide to Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
The Guide is designed to help homeowners understand IPM and to aid in developing a pest control plan.
Kratsch, H. and Hefner, M. 2017, University of Nevada, Reno, Extension, SP-17-13
Nutritional and Sensory Analysis of Raspberry Varieties Grown in Northern Nevada
The purpose of this study was to measure vitamin C, vitamin E, total polyphenolics (antioxidants) and sugars (glucose and fructose) in several raspberry varieties during two growing seasons and during different months of harvest. We hypothesized these nutrients would vary across types, as well as harvest month.
Jacobs, J., Kratsch, H., Omaye, S., and Treftz C. 2016, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Special Publication 16-14
Designing Landscapes for Northern Nevada's Arid Climate
This fact sheet contains information on designing landscapes for an arid climate in northern Nevada. Learn more about factors that influence a landscape design, potential goals for the landscape, water-efficient landscaping, and many more.
Kratsch, H. and Skelly, J. 2015, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, SP-11-15
Gardening Guide of High-Desert Urban Landscapes of Great Basin Regions in Nevada and Utah
Tips for gardening in the high desert of Nevada and Utah including plant lists and photos of grasses, perennial and annual flowers, shrubs and tress that grow well in the high desert.
Kratsch, H. and Heflebower, R. 2013, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, Special Publication 13-09
Boron- and salt-tolerant trees and shrubs for northern Nevada
This fact sheet contains information on boron and salty soils to help readers understand different trees and shrubs' tolerance of the minerals. Learn about the boron and salt tolerance through different tables that contain detailed information on different plants.
Kratsch, H. 2012, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, SP-13-04
Common Plant Problems in Northern Nevada: Look for C.L.U.E.S.
This publication is for master gardeners and green industry professionals who are involved with educating and helping clients with their plant problems. Learn about the problems a plant faces and how to reduce and solve the problem.
Kratsch, H. 2011, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, SP-11-12
Videos
Entrenamiento en la Seguridad de Pesticidas: Manténte siempre Seguro/Segura al Realizar las Aplicaciones de Pesticidas
Hablemos de que debes hacer para poder mantenerte seguro o segura durante las aplicaciones de pesticidas. Hablaremos de cómo los pesticidas ingresan al cuerpo, los primeros auxilios al estar expuesto a los pesticidas, las diferencias entre el envenenamiento por causa de pesticidas y las enfermedades relacionadas con el
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. and Harrison, D. 2020, Extension, University of Nevada, Reno, YouTube Channel
Entrenamiento en la Seguridad de Pesticidas: Que Se Debe Hacer Cuando Hay Derrames de Pesticidas
En este video, hablaremos sobre los kits relacionados con los derrames y que se debe hacer al tratar con los derrames de pesticidas.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
spills
Pesticide Safety Training: Dealing with Pesticide Spills Video
This video discusses publication describes dealing with pesticide spills, what materials should be in a spill kit, how to dispose of spill materials and how to report a pesticide spill.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
box of pesticide
Pesticide Safety Training: Handling Pesticides Safely Video
This video discusses handling pesticides safely, which includes four areas of safety: properly storing pesticides, safely transporting pesticides, disposing of unused pesticides, and disposing of pesticide containers.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H. and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
Entrenamiento en la Seguridad de Pesticidas: Como Protegerte Mientras se Aplican los Pesticidas Video
El hecho de protegerte mientras se aplican los pesticidas es muy importante. Según la Agencia a cargo de la Protección Ambiental, un pesticida es cualquier sustancia o mezcla de sustancias destinadas a prevenir, destruir o repeler cualquier plaga.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
Entrenamiento en la Seguridad de Pesticidas: El Manejo Segura de Pesticidas Video
En este video, hablaremos sobre el manejo seguro de pesticidas, que incluye cuatro áreas relacionadas con la seguridad: el almacenamiento adecuado de pesticidas, el transporte seguro de pesticidas, la eliminación de pesticidas que no se han utilizado y la eliminación de los contenedores que se usan para los pesticidas
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
spills
Pesticide Safety Training: Keeping Yourself Safe during Pesticide Applications Video
This video discusses how pesticides enter the body, first aid for pesticide exposure, the differences between pesticide poisoning and heat-related illness, and preventing heat-related illnesses.
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel
what to wear
Pesticide Safety Training: Protecting Yourself While Applying Pesticides – Using Personal Protective Equipment Video
Protecting yourself while applying pesticides is important. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, a pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy or repel any pest. Simply put, pesticides are substances intended to kill pests!
Hefner, M., Kratsch, H., and Harrison, D. 2020, University of Nevada, Extension, YouTube Channel