Introduction

Sample costs and returns to establish and produce Great Basin Wild Rye seed under flood irrigation in Northwestern Nevada are presented in this publication. This publication is intended to be a guide used to make production decisions, determine potential returns and prepare business and marketing plans. Practices described are based on the production practices considered typical for this crop and region but may not apply to every situation. The “Your Farm” column in Tables 1 & 2 is provided for your use.

Open sesert field

Assumptions

The following assumptions refer to Tables 1 through 4 and reflect the typical costs and returns to establish and produce Great Basin Wild Rye seed stands under flood irrigation in Northwestern Nevada. The practices described are not the recommendations of the University of Nevada, Reno, but rather the production practices and materials considered typical of a well-managed farm in the region, as determined by consultation with local experts and available literature. Costs, materials and practices are not applicable to all situations because establishment and cultural practices vary among growers within the region.

Farm

The representative farm consists of 202 acres of land, on which 200 acres are cultivated for Great Basin Wild Rye seed production and 2 acres are used for owner housing, machine shop and roads. During the growing season the enterprise will produce one cutting at 400 pounds of seed per acre. The minimum land market value in 2008 was approximately $11,500.00 per acre for agricultural land in northwestern Nevada with water rights.

Stand Establishment

The establishment year follows alfalfa hay production. The establishment year consists of 13 months. The Great Basin Wild Rye stand life in Northwestern Nevada is six years. Establishment year costs are provided in Table 1.

Land Preparation

Roundup* is applied to remove any residual alfalfa growth from plots. The ground is ripped to break up the soil to improve water infiltration and fertilizer penetration. The field is then disked and floated to remove small high and low spots followed by a custom laser which will level the land.

Planting

In August, Great Basin Wild Rye seed is drilled at 3.5 pounds per acre and with a row spacing of 36 inches.

Handful of seeds

Fertilization

Prior to planting, fertilizer is spread and incorporated by disking. Commercial fertilizer (ammonia sulfate at $85.50/acre) is normally applied.

Irrigation

Irrigation begins immediately after planting to establish the seedlings prior to winter. Four inches of water is applied to fields via flood irrigation.

Pest Management

Insecticide and herbicide is not likely to be used during the establishment year due to the lack of disease or insect problems.

Harvest

Harvest is not recommended in the establishment year.

Establishment Investment

The Great Basin Wild Rye establishment investment cost is placed into the investment summary (Table 3) and is depreciated across the 6-year stand life.

Production Cultural Practices and Material Inputs

Irrigation

Irrigation begins in April and continues through August. Irrigation costs shown in Tables 1 and 2 cover the per acre cost of water at $25.00 per acre foot, plus an administration fee of $50.00 per land parcel, which is assumed to be one parcel per every 50 acres, or four for the 200 acre farm. Also included are maintenance costs on ditches such as hauling dirt to fix wash-outs, broken headgates and machinery costs to weed the ditches. These maintenance costs are $200.00 annually. Total irrigation costs are $36.00 per acre.

Fertilization

No fertilization is needed beyond the initial fertilization prior to planting.

Pest Management

Insecticide and herbicide is not likely to be used during the life of the stand due to the lack of disease or insect problems.

Weeds

Weed control is accomplished by cultivation, which also maintains row culture.

Harvest

Harvest equipment owned by the farm and operated by the owner/operator or hired help consists of a combine and a cultivator pulled by a tractor.

Labor

The owner/operator wage is based on an allowance to the owner/operator of $75.00 per acre.

Rye field

Utilities

Current utilities rates calculated using information from SWGAS Base utility costs of $350 per month for the household were combined with costs of $7 per acre per year to allow for utilities for outbuildings and shops.

Yield

The 200 acre farm yields 400 pounds of seed per acre in one annual cutting.

Returns

Returns are based on 2007 market prices for certified seed. An estimated price of $2.50 per pound of seed (1/3 of current retail price) was used to calculate returns. Returns will vary during the growing season due to market conditions. The primary market for native seed are land management agencies and seed is sold by bid, with the possibility of no buyer for the crop.

Overhead and Capital Recovery Costs

Cash Overhead

Cash overhead consists of various cash expenses paid out during the year. These costs include property taxes, interest, office expenses, liability and property insurance, as well as investment/machinery repairs. A complete listing of farm investments and associated costs can be found in Table 3.

Interest on Operating Capital

Total operating capital is calculated based on 80 percent of total operating (variable) costs. The interest on operating capital is calculated at a rate of 6.5 percent for the six month production cycle.vv

Property Taxes

Property taxes in Nevada differ across counties. For the purposes of this publication, investment property taxes are calculated at 1 percent of the average asset value of the property.

Insurance

Insurance on farm investments vary, depending on the assets included and the amount of coverage. Property insurance provides coverage for property loss at .666 percent of the average asset value. Liability insurance covers accidents on the farm at an annual cost of $1,749.00. Insurance information provided by Kevin Ogan of Beauchamp & McSpadden, Inc.

Fuel and Lube

The fuel and lube for each piece of equipment is calculated at 8 percent of the purchase price. Fuel and lube in the establishment year is 125 percent of that in a normal production year due to increased machinery use.

Rye stem

Investment Repairs

Annual repairs on all farm investments or capital recovery items that require maintenance are calculated at 2 percent of the purchase price for buildings, improvements, and equipment and 7 percent of the purchase price for machinery and vehicles.

Office & Travel

Office and travel costs are estimated at $3,000.00 for an average year. These expenses include office supplies, telephone service, Internet service, and travel expenses to educational seminars.

Capital Recovery

Capital recovery costs are the annual depreciation (opportunity cost) of all farm investments. Capital recovery costs are calculated using straight-line depreciation. Farm equipment may be purchased new or used depending on producer panel preferences.

Salvage Value

Salvage value is 10 percent of the new purchase price which is an estimate of the remaining value of an investment at the end of its useful life. The salvage value for land is the purchase price, as land does not normally depreciate.

Average Asset Value Computation

(Purchase Price + Salvage Value divided by 2)

Straight Line Depreciation Computation

(Purchase Price - Salvage Value divided by Useful Life)

*The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Cooperative Extension is implied.

References

Aberdeen Plant Materials Center (2006). Plants for Solving Resource Problems – ‘Magnar’ Basin Wildrye. United States Department of Agriculture.

Land & Farm (2008). Current pricing for agricultural properties with water rights in northwestern Nevada.

Ogle, Daniel G., St. John, Loren, Holzworth, Larry K. (2002). Basin Wildrye, NCRS Plant Guide. United States Department of Agriculture.

Smathers, Robert (2007). The Costs of Owning and Operating Farm Machinery in the Pacific Northwest 2005. A Pacific Northwest Publication #346. University of Idaho, Washington State University, and Oregon State University.

Growing Rye

Notes

Sample production costs and returns publications for significant agricultural products in various regions of Nevada are available online at the University of Nevada Cooperative Extension Web site at UNCE. For additional information, contact the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Nevada, Reno at (775) 784-6701 or your local University of Nevada Cooperative Extension office.

Table 1: Northwestern Nevada Great Basin Wild Rye Establishment Costs, 200 acres, 2008
Gross Income Total Units Unit Price/Cost Per Unit Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Rodent Control 200.00 Acre - - -  
Insecticide 200.00 Acre - - -  
Herbicide 200.00 Acre - - -  
Fertilizer 200.00 Acre $85.50 $17,100.00 $85.50  
Irrigation 200.00 Acre $36.00 $7,200.00 $36.00  
Seed 3.50 Lbs/Acre $8.00 $5,600.00 $28.00  
Roundup 2.50 Quarts/Acre $14.50 $5,800.00 $29.00  
Operator Labor 200.00 Acre $75.00 $15,000.00 $75.00  
Accounting & Legal 1.00 Annual $2,000.00 $2,000.00 $10.00  
Fuel & Lube 1.25 Annual $21,316.32 $26,645.40 $133.23  
Maintenance 1.00 Annual $24,122.48 $24,122.48 $120.61  
Utilities 1.00 Annual $5,600.00 $5,600.00 $28.00  
Miscellaneous 200.00 Acre $5.00 $1,000.00 $5.00  
Interest Operating Capital $88,054.30 $ $0.065 $2,861.76 $14.31  
Total Operating Costs       $112,929.64 $564.65  
Ownership & Cash Overhead Costs Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Liability Insurance $1,749.00 $8.75  
Office & Travel $3,000.00 $15.00  
Annual Investment Insurance $2,577.38 $12.89  
Annual Investment Taxes $27,099.94 $135.50  
Total Cash Overhead Costs $34,426.32 $172.13  
Noncash Overhead Costs (Capital Recovery) Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Buildings, Improvements, & Equipment $2,852.10 $14.26  
Machinery & Vehicles $19,812.24 $99.06  
Total Noncash Overhead Costs $22,664.34 $113.32  
Total Ownership Costs $57,090.66 $285.45  
Total Costs $170,020.30 $850.10  
Year One Income Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Magnar Seed - -  
Total Gross Income - -  
Total Establishment Investment $170,020.30 $850.10  
Table 2: Northwestern Nevada Great Basin Wild Rye Production Costs and Returns, 200 acres, 2008
Gross Income Total Units Unit Price/Cost Per Unit Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Magnar Seed 400.00 pounds $2.50 $200,000.00 $1,000.00  
Total Gross Income       $200,000.00 $1,000.00  
Operating Costs Total Units Unit Price/Cost Per Unit Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Rodent Control 200.00 Acre - - -  
Insecticide 200.00 Acre - - -  
Herbicide 200.00 Acre - - -  
Fertilizer 200.00 Acre - - -  
Irrigation 200.00 Acre $36.00 $7,200.00 $36.00  
Operator Labor 1.00 Annual $75.00 $15,000.00 $75.00  
Accounting & Legal 1.00 Annual $2,000.00 $2,000.00 $10.00  
Fuel & Lube 1.00 Annual $21,316.32 $21,316.32 $106.58  
Maintenance 1.00 Annual $24,122.48 $24,122.48 $120.61  
Utilities 1.00 Annual $5,600.00 $5,600.00 $28.00  
Miscellaneous 200.00 Acre $5.00 $1,000.00 $5.00  
Operating Capital Interest $60,991.04 $ $0.065 $1,982.21 $9.91  
Total Operating Costs       $78,221.01 $391.11  
Income Above Operating Costs       $121,778.99 $608.89  
Ownership & Cash Overhead Costs  Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Arce Your Farm
Liability Insurance $1,749.00 $8.75  
Office & travel $3,000.00 $15.00  
Annual Investment Insurance $2,577.38 $12.89  
Annual Investment Taxes $27,099.94 $135.50  
Total Cash Overhead Costs $34,426.32 $172.13  
Noncash Overhead Costs (Capital Recovery) Total Cost/Value Total Cost/Value Per Acre Your Farm
Buildings, Improvements, & Equipment $31,188.82 $155.94  
Machinery & Vehicles $19,812.24 $99.06  
Total Noncash Overhead Costs $51,001.06 $255.01  
Total Ownership Costs $85,427.38 $427.14  
Total Costs $163,648.39 $818.24  
Net Projected Returns $36,351.61 $181.76  
Table 3: Investment Summary
Buildings, Improvements, and Equipment Purchase Price Useful Life (Yrs) Salvage Value Annual Capital Recovery Annual Insurance Annual Taxes Annual Repairs
Owner House $200,000.00 50.00 $200,000.00 - $1,332.00 $2,000.00 $4,000.00
Land $2,323,000.00 150.00 $2,323,000.00 - - $23,230.00 -
Shop (30X40) & Tools $41,000.00 25.00 $4,100.00 $1,476.00 $150.18 $225.50 $820.00
Metal Equipment Shed (20X80) $24,000.00 25.00 $2,400.00 $864.00 $87.91 $132.00 $480.00
Implements $8,535.00 15.00 $853.50 $512.10 $31.26 $46.94 $170.70
Great Basin Wild Rye Establishment $170,020.30 6.00 - $28,336.72 - - -
Sub Total Pre-Establishment $2,596,535.00 NA $2,530,353.50 $2,852.10 $1,601.36 $25,634.44 $5,470.70
Sub Total Post-Establishment $2,766,555.30 NA $2,530,353.50 $31,188.82 $1,601.36 $25,634.44 $5,470.70
Machinery and Vehicles Purchase Price Useful Life (Yrs) Salvage Value Annual Capital Recovery Annual Insurance Annual Taxes Annual Repairs Annual Fuel & Lube
Combine $181,455.00 15.00 $18,145.50 $10,887.30 $664.67 $998.00 $12,701.85 $14,516.40
74 HP Tractor w/ loader $24,999.00 15.00 $2,499.90 $1,499.94 $91.57 $137.49 $1,749.93 $1,999.92
4-Wheeler $10,000.00 5.00 $1,000.00 $1,800.00 $36.63 $55.00 $700.00 $800.00
1 Ton Pickup $50,000.00 8.00 $5,000.00 $5,625.00 $183.15 $275.00 $3 ,500.00 $4,000.00
Sub Total $266,454.00 NA $26,645.40 $19,812.24 $976.02 $1,465.50 $18,651.78 $21,316.32
Total $3,033,009.30 NA $2,556,998.90 $51,001.06 $2 ,577.38 $27,099.94 $24,122.48 $21,316.32
Table 4: Monthly Cash Flow
Production January February March April May June
Magnar Seed - - - - - $50,000.00
Total Income - - - - - $50,000.00
Production July August September October November December Total
Magnar Seed $50,000.00 $50,000.00 $50,000.00 - - - $200,000.00
Total Income $50,000.00 $50,000.00 $50,000.00 - - - $200,000.00
Operating Inputs January February March April May June
Rodent Control - - - - - -
Insecticide - - - - - -
Herbicide - - - - - -
Fertilizer - - - - - -
Irrigation - - $1,028.57 $1,028.57 $1,028.57 $1,028.57
Operator Labor $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00
Accounting/Legal $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67
Fuel & Lube $1,121.91 $1,121.91 $2,243.82 $2,243.82 $2,243.82 $2,243.82
Maintenance $1,269.60 $1,269.60 $2,539.21 $2,539.21 $2,539.21 $2,539.21
Utilities $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67
Miscellaneous $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33
Interest OC $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18
Total Operating Costs $4,523.37 $4,523.37 $7,943.45 $7,943.45 $7,943.45 $7,943.45
Net Returns $(4,523.37) $(4,523.37) $(7,943.45) $(7,943.45) $(7,943.45) $42,056.55
Operating Inputs July August September October November December Total
Rodent Control - - - - - - -
Insecticide - - - - - - -
Herbicide - - - - - - -
Fertilizer - - - - - - -
Irrigation $1,028.57 $1,028.57 $1,028.57 - - - $7,200.00
Operator Labor $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $1,250.00 $15,000.00
Accounting/Legal $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $166.67 $2,000.00
Fuel & Lube $2,243.82 $2,243.82 $2,243.82 $1,121.91 $1,121.91 $1,121.91 $21,316.32
Maintenance $2,539.21 $2,539.21 $2,539.21 $1,269.60 $1,269.60 $1,269.60 $24,122.48
Utilities $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $466.67 $5,600.00
Miscellaneous $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $83.33 $1,000.00
Interest OC $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $165.18 $1,982.21
Total Operating Costs $7,943.45 $7,943.45 $7,943.45 $4,523.37 $4,523.37 $4,523.37 $78,221.01
Net Returns $42,056.55 $42,056.55 $42,056.55 $(4,523.37) $(4,523.37) $(4,523.37) $121,778.99
K. R. Curtis and C. Bishop 2008, Northwestern Nevada Great Basin Wild Rye Establishment, Production Costs and Returns, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, SP-08-11

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