Camelina is a drought- and salt-tolerant oil seed, which in total ether extract (EE) contains up to 74% polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of replacing calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) with camelina seed (CS) on ruminal fermentation, digestion, and flows of fatty acids (FA) and AA in a dual-flow continuous culture system when supplemented at 5 or 8% dietary EE.
Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermentors in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with four 10-d experimental periods consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection.
- calcium salts of palm oil supplementation at 5% EE (MEG5);
- calcium salts of palm oil supplementation at 8% EE (MEG8);
- 7.7% CS supplementation at 5% EE (CS5); and
- 17.7% CS supplementation at 8% EE (CS8).
Diets contained 55% orchardgrass hay, and fermentors were fed 72 g of dry matter/d. On d 8, 9, and 10 of each period, digesta effluent samples were taken for ruminal NH3, volatile fatty acids, nitrogen metabolism analysis, and long-chain FA and AA flows. Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
We detected an interaction between FA source and dietary EE level for acetate, where MEG8 had the greatest molar proportion of acetate. Molar proportions of propionate were greater and total volatile fatty acids were lower on CS diets. Supplementation of CS decreased overall ruminal nutrient true digestibility, but dietary EE level did not affect it. Diets containing CS had greater biohydrogenation of 18:2 and 18:3; however, biohydrogenation of 18:1 was greater in MEG diets. Additionally, CS diets had greater ruminal concentrations of trans-10/11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Dietary EE level at 8% negatively affected flows of NH3-N (g/d), nonammonia N, and bacterial N as well as the overall AA outflow. However, treatments had minor effects on individual ruminal AA digestibility. The shift from acetate to propionate observed on diets containing CS may be advantageous from an energetic standpoint. Moreover, CS diets had greater ruminal outflow of trans-10/11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid than MEG diets, suggesting a better FA profile available for postruminal absorption. However, dietary EE at 8% was deleterious to overall N metabolism and AA outflow, indicating that CS can be fed at 5% EE without compromising N metabolism.