Donaldson, S. and Hanson Mazet, W. 2012, A Northern Nevada Homeowner’s Guide to Identifying and Managing Cutleaf Nightshade, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, FS-13-12

Other common names

Cut-leaf nightshade, small nightshade

Scientific name

Solanum triflorum

Family

Solanaceae

Description

Cutleaf nightshade is a hairy plant that grows in a low, mounding form close to the ground or up to about 1½ feet tall. The foliage has an unpleasant odor. It is toxic to humans and animals. Toxicity varies widely, with seedlings, growing tips of plants and green berries being most toxic. Drying does not destroy the toxic alkaloids. Do NOT eat the berries.

Typical plant

Typical plant in disturbed site. Photo by W. Hanson Mazet.

Leaves

One-half inch to 2 inches long, slightly hairy with deep lobes. The lobes can be toothed.

Nightshade leaf

The leaves have deep lobes. Photo by Photos by S. Donaldson.

Stems

Hairy and branched from the base. Flowers are attached to the stems between the leaves.

Flowers

Small, star-shaped flowers are white with five petals and a yellowish center. Flowers occur in clusters of two or three and have a sweet scent. The tomato-like berries are small, green and somewhat striped or marbled in color.

Nightshade flower

The small, white flowers have a yellow center. Photo by W. Hanson Mazet.

Roots

Grows a taproot.

Native to

North and South America

Where it grows

Cultivated fields and disturbed sites; tolerates dry soil

Life cycle

Annual (sprouts, flowers and dies in a single year)

Reproduction

Reproduces by seed

Seedlings leaves

Seedlings leaves are smooth and have a few coarse teeth. Photo by J. DiTomaso, UCCE.

Control methods

As with all annual plants, successful control relies on preventing seed production.

Mechanical

Dig or pull small patches. Bag and dispose of plants if berries are present. The seeds germinate in the top 1 or 2 inches of soil, so till soils carefully to bury the seeds more deeply.

Cultural

Encourage thick, competitive vegetation.

Biological

No information is available. Grazing should be avoided due to toxicity.

Chemical

Apply broadleaf-selective herbicides such as 2,4-D + dicamba on young plants. Glyphosate may also be effective but is nonselective and can kill or damage other plants, including lawn grasses.

Toxic berries

The toxic berries resemble cherry tomatoes, but do not turn red when mature. Photo by Photos by S. Donaldson.

References

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Publication 3488.

Miller, T.W. and R. Parker. 2006. Nightshade: Biology and Control in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW0588, WSU.

UC Berkeley Jepson Manual. 2012. Solanum triflorum Nutt., UC/JEPS.

USDA Plants profile, Solanum triflorum Nutt., USDA.

Whitson, Tom D. (editor). 2009. Weeds of the West. University of Wyoming, Jackson, Wyoming.

Learn more about the author(s)

A Northern Nevada Homeowner’s Guide to Identifying and Managing Cutleaf Nightshade

Other common names

Cut-leaf nightshade, small nightshade

Scientific name

Solanum triflorum

Family

Solanaceae

Description

Cutleaf nightshade is a hairy plant that grows in a low, mounding form close to the ground or up to about 1½ feet tall. The foliage has an unpleasant odor. It is toxic to humans and animals. Toxicity varies widely, with seedlings, growing tips of plants and green berries being most toxic. Drying does not destroy the toxic alkaloids. Do NOT eat the berries.

Typical plant

Typical plant in disturbed site. Photo by W. Hanson Mazet.

Leaves

One-half inch to 2 inches long, slightly hairy with deep lobes. The lobes can be toothed.

Nightshade leaf

The leaves have deep lobes. Photo by Photos by S. Donaldson.

Stems

Hairy and branched from the base. Flowers are attached to the stems between the leaves.

Flowers

Small, star-shaped flowers are white with five petals and a yellowish center. Flowers occur in clusters of two or three and have a sweet scent. The tomato-like berries are small, green and somewhat striped or marbled in color.

Nightshade flower

The small, white flowers have a yellow center. Photo by W. Hanson Mazet.

Roots

Grows a taproot.

Native to

North and South America

Where it grows

Cultivated fields and disturbed sites; tolerates dry soil

Life cycle

Annual (sprouts, flowers and dies in a single year)

Reproduction

Reproduces by seed

Seedlings leaves

Seedlings leaves are smooth and have a few coarse teeth. Photo by J. DiTomaso, UCCE.

Control methods

As with all annual plants, successful control relies on preventing seed production.

Mechanical

Dig or pull small patches. Bag and dispose of plants if berries are present. The seeds germinate in the top 1 or 2 inches of soil, so till soils carefully to bury the seeds more deeply.

Cultural

Encourage thick, competitive vegetation.

Biological

No information is available. Grazing should be avoided due to toxicity.

Chemical

Apply broadleaf-selective herbicides such as 2,4-D + dicamba on young plants. Glyphosate may also be effective but is nonselective and can kill or damage other plants, including lawn grasses.

Toxic berries

The toxic berries resemble cherry tomatoes, but do not turn red when mature. Photo by Photos by S. Donaldson.

References

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Publication 3488.

Miller, T.W. and R. Parker. 2006. Nightshade: Biology and Control in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW0588, WSU.

UC Berkeley Jepson Manual. 2012. Solanum triflorum Nutt., UC/JEPS.

USDA Plants profile, Solanum triflorum Nutt., USDA.

Whitson, Tom D. (editor). 2009. Weeds of the West. University of Wyoming, Jackson, Wyoming.

Published by: Donaldson, S. and Hanson Mazet, W., 2012, A Northern Nevada Homeowner’s Guide to Identifying and Managing Cutleaf Nightshade, Extension | University of Nevada, Reno, FS-13-12