Historically, governments have had to put serious restrictions on researchers. In fact, the origin of codes of research ethics can be traced to the NUREMBERG CODE, a list of rules established by a military tribunal on Nazi war crimes during World War II. 

The principles outlined in the Nuremberg Code include:

  • Voluntary consent
  • Avoidance of unnecessary suffering
  • Avoidance of accidental death or disability
  • Termination of research if harm is likely
  • Experiments should be conducted by highly qualified people
  • Results should be for the good of society and unattainable by any other means 
Moody, N 2020, Research Involving Human Subjects, Research & Innovation, University of Nevada, Reno

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